Saturday, June 27, 2009

Embeded System

Definition -> A specialized computer system that is part of a larger system or machine. Typically, an embedded system is housed on a single microprocessor board with the program stored in ROM. Virtually all appliances that have a digital interface-- watches, microwaves, VCRs, cars -- utilize embedded systems. Some embedded systems include an operating system, but many are so specialized that the entire logic can be implemented as a single program.


  1. Embedded systems are designed to do some specific task, rather than be a general-purpose computer for multiple tasks. Some also have real-time performance constraints that must be met, for reasons such as safety and usability; others may have low or no performance requirements, allowing the system hardware to be simplified to reduce costs.

  2. Embedded systems are not always standalone devices. Many embedded systems consist of small, computerized parts within a larger device that serves a more general purpose. For example, the Gibson Robot Guitar features an embedded system for tuning the strings, but the overall purpose of the Robot Guitar is, of course, to play music. [2] Similarly, an embedded system in an automobile provides a specific function as a subsystem of the car itself.

  3. The program instructions written for embedded systems are referred to as firmware, and are stored in read-only memory or Flash memory chips. They run with limited computer hardware resources: little memory, small or non-existent keyboard and/or screen.

Embedded systems span all aspects of modern life and there are many examples of their use.
Telecommunications systems employ numerous embedded systems from telephone switches for the network to mobile phones at the end-user. Computer networking uses dedicated routers and network bridges to route data.

Consumer electronics include personal digital assistants (PDAs), mp3 players, mobile phones, videogame consoles, digital cameras, DVD players, GPS receivers, and printers. Many household appliances, such as microwave ovens, washing machines and dishwashers, are including embedded systems to provide flexibility, efficiency and features. Advanced HVAC systems use networked thermostats to more accurately and efficiently control temperature that can change by time of day and season. Home automation uses wired- and wireless-networking that can be used to control lights, climate, security, audio/visual, surveillance, etc., all of which use embedded devices for sensing and controlling.

Transportation systems from flight to automobiles increasingly use embedded systems. New airplanes contain advanced avionics such as inertial guidance systems and GPS receivers that also have considerable safety requirements. Various electric motors — brushless DC motors, induction motors and DC motors — are using electric/electronic motor controllers. Automobiles, electric vehicles, and hybrid vehicles are increasingly using embedded systems to maximize efficiency and reduce pollution. Other automotive safety systems such as anti-lock braking system (ABS), Electronic Stability Control (ESC/ESP), traction control (TCS) and automatic four-wheel drive.

Medical equipment is continuing to advance with more embedded systems for vital signs monitoring, electronic stethoscopes for amplifying sounds, and various medical imaging (PET, SPECT, CT, MRI) for non-invasive internal inspections.

Facts about ROBOTS!!

A robot is a virtual or mechanical artificial agent. In practice, it is usually an electro-mechanical system which, by its appearance or movements, conveys a sense that it has intent or agency of its own. The word robot can refer to both physical robots and virtual software agents, but the latter are usually referred to as bots. There is no consensus on which machines qualify as robots, but there is general agreement among experts and the public that robots tend to do some or all of the following: move around, operate a mechanical limb, sense and manipulate their environment, and exhibit intelligent behavior, especially behavior which mimics humans or other animals.

This is some advantages and disadvantages of having robots in our life:-


  • Quality: Robots have the capacity to dramatically improve product quality. Applications are performed with precision and high repeatability every time. This level of consistency can be hard to achieve any other way.
  • Production:With robots, throughput speeds increase, which directly impacts production. Because robots have the ability to work at a constant speed without pausing for breaks, sleep, vacations, they have the potential to produce more than a human worker.
  • Safety:Robots increase workplace safety. Workers are moved to supervisory roles, so they no longer have to perform dangerous applications in hazardous settings.
  • Savings: Greater worker safety leads to financial savings. There are fewer healthcare and insurance concerns for employers. Robots also offer untiring performance which saves valuable time. Their movements are always exact, so less material is wasted.


  • Expense:The initial investment of robots is significant, especially when business owners are limiting their purchases to new robotic equipment. The cost of automation should be calculated in light of a business' greater financial budget. Regular maintenance needs can have a financial toll as well.
  • ROI: Incorporating industrial robots does not guarantee results. Without planning, companies can have difficulty achieving their goals.
  • Expertise:Employees will require training in programming and interacting with the new robotic equipment. This normally takestime and financial output.
  • Safety:Robots may protect workers from some hazards, but in the meantime, their very presence can create other safety problems. These new dangers must be taken into consideration.

-A movie based on robots.


Electronic Commerce, commonly known as (electronic marketing) e-commerce or eCommerce, consists of the buying and selling of products or services over electronic systems such as the Internet and other computer networks. The amount of trade conducted electronically has grown extraordinarily with widespread Internet usage. The use of commerce is conducted in this way, spurring and drawing on innovations in electronic funds transfer, supply chain management, Internet marketing, online transaction processing, electronic data interchange (EDI), inventory management systems, and automated data collection systems. Modern electronic commerce typically uses the World Wide Web at least at some point in the transaction's lifecycle, although it can encompass a wider range of technologies such as e-mail as well.

A large percentage of electronic commerce is conducted entirely electronically for virtual items such as access to premium content on a website, but most electronic commerce involves the transportation of physical items in some way. Online retailers are sometimes known as e-tailers and online retail is sometimes known as e-tail. Almost all big retailers have electronic commerce presence on the World Wide Web.

Electronic commerce that is conducted between businesses is referred to as business-to-business or B2B. B2B can be open to all interested parties (e.g. commodity exchange) or limited to specific, pre-qualified participants (private electronic market). Electronic commerce that is conducted between businesses and consumers, on the other hand, is referred to as business-to-consumer or B2C. This is the type of electronic commerce conducted by companies such as

Electronic commerce is generally considered to be the sales aspect of e-business. It also consists of the exchange of data to facilitate the financing and payment aspects of the business transactions.

Friday, May 1, 2009


Okay this is my introduction................

My Name is Muhammad Fakhri Haziq bin Haji Abd. Hakip.I lived for 13 years already and I was born on October 12,1995.I am now learning at Maktab Sains PSBS in Year 8N.I don't know what to say about myself......from my p.o.v. I am very............................weird,I guess ;P

Friday, April 24, 2009

Computer Radiation Has Any Effects?

Computer radiation is very harmful to the skin and general health because when we sit directly in front of the computer screen for long periods, we absorb the radiation emitted. Addressing this issue is very important. Computer radiation results in a sick feeling and even burns your skin and since most employees within the computing industry are not aware of this, they continue to suffer with ill health.

A laptop or LCD does not exclude you from the negative affects of computer radiation because all computer monitors emit some level of radiation, some less than others. Laptops and LCD monitors may emit less radiation than the CRT monitors, but they emit enough radiation to affect health and appearance.

A healthy solution is the computer accessory called a radiation filter. This product is designed to eliminate up to 99% of the harmful radiation emitted. Radiation filters are available for all types and sizes of computer monitors.

It is also advisable to move the CPU (central processing unit) as far away from your body as possible. This will reduce the chances of the radiation to reach you and harm your body. The negative health effects of computer radiation are a part of extensive study today. There is much research being conducted on the health hazards, but the influence of the industry is so great that many simply avoid the subject.